Deterministic Fabrication of 3D Mesostructures by Compressive Buckling
Compressive buckling is a novel fabrication technology to build complex 3D micro/nanostructures via the out-of-plane buckling of an originally planar structural layout, some of which unachievable with other techniques. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the mechanics makes it possible to design the 2D patterns and predict the resulting 3D structure. The fabricated 2D pattern is then attached to a pre-strained substrate at a number of points. Relaxing of the substrate causes the patterned material to bend and buckle, leading to its 3D shape.
The 3D buckling method features high throughput with rapid and large scale fabrication, versatility in material selection (metals, ceramics, and polymers in crystalline or amorphous forms), and potential to build ultrastrechable electronic devices as the minimal stretchability is determined by the prestrain in the design and fabrication step. Specially designed complex structures have potential applications in stretchable electronics and optics and we have demonstrated such 3D structures as mechanically tunable inductors.
S. Xu, Z. Yan, K.-I. Jang, W. Huang, H.R. Fu, J.H. Kim, Z.J. Wei, M. Flavin, J. McCracken, R.H. Wang, A. Badea, Y.H. Liu, D.Q. Xiao, G.Y. Zhou, J.W. Lee, H.U. Chung, H.Y. Cheng, W. Ren, A. Banks, X.L. Li, U. Paik, R. G. Nuzzo, Y.G. Huang, Y.H. Zhang, J.A. Rogers, Assembly of Micro/Nanomaterials into Complex, Three-dimensional Architectures by Compressive Buckling, Science, 347, 154 (2015) [pdf]